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  • Reviews, suggestions and discussions

  • Conceptual and structural solutions for solar central air conditioner

    The article discusses the constructive and conceptual solutions associated with the implementation of the main devices of the central air conditioner, working in conjunction with the chiller. The peculiarity of the implementation of these devices is dictated by the use of solar energy. The receivers of solar energy are solar collectors, in which the heating medium is heated, which is used as a heat source in the chiller generator.

    Keywords: solar energy, central air conditioner, chiller, absorption refrigeration machines, vacuum solar collector

  • The main ways of connecting the nodes of wooden structures

    Various options for connecting wooden structures are described. Examples of the use of various compounds, the most common today, are described. The advantages and disadvantages of such compounds are analyzed, and the technical characteristics of the elements used are given. Advantages and disadvantages of joints of wooden structures with the use of composite materials are described.

    Keywords: wooden structures, joints of wooden structures, analysis, mechanical connections, comparison, load, strength, nagel, cool connection, mating, toothed plates

  • Technical science. Informatics, computer facilities and management

  • Numerical simulation of the dynamics of a pre-modulated electron beam in the drift space of a transit klystron

    It is indicated in the article that the study of the electron bunching process in the drift space of a transit klystron is an urgent task that allows one to establish general laws applicable to more complex models. In this connection, the behavior of the pre-modulated electron beam in the drift space of the transit klystron has been investigated. A numerical model has been implemented that takes into account the effect of space charge fields and the interaction of charged particles with elements of an electrodynamic system. A series of numerical experiments with different values ​​of the current and initial velocities of electrons, as well as their comparison with theoretical data, have been carried out. As a result of numerical experiments, data were obtained that characterize the dynamics of the electron flux in the drift space of the transit klystron at different values ​​of the initial velocity (0.5 s, 0.9 s) and cathode current (10 mA, 1A, 10A).

    Keywords: flyby klystron, mathematical model, numerical simulation, large particle method, particle-particle method, drift space, convection current distribution, electron flow, multithreaded calculations, system of differential equations

  • Autonomous power supply of valve assemblies on pipelines

    In the oil industry, autonomous electric power sources containing renewable energy sources are used to power remote consumers with an occasional load, mainly valve assemblies on pipelines. The need for electric energy sources of this type is determined by the need to install valve assemblies at pipeline intersections with water barriers, at intersections with transport arteries, and in a number of other cases. Very often in such places there are no available power lines or substations. In this case, the only alternative is the use of autonomous sources, or the expensive construction of an extended overhead line. In some cases, the developer decides to abandon the overhead line due to its high cost and the need for additional land acquisition. From the point of view of ecology, such a decision in favor of autonomous sources of electric energy also has an additional positive effect. Since the installation of valve assemblies is dictated mainly by environmental considerations, high requirements are placed on the reliability of power supply. Violation of these conditions can lead to hydraulic shocks in the system and possible destruction and breakage of system elements. A wind turbine or solar panels are undoubtedly an independent source of power supply and, when paired with batteries or a diesel generator set, can formally provide high reliability of power supply. On the other hand, there are periods of time when the power of a wind turbine or solar battery is insufficient to supply a given load. As a consequence, the decision on the reliability of power supply should be made on the basis of additional studies of the static and dynamic stability of the entire electrical power generation complex.

    Keywords: renewable energy sources, valve assembly on pipelines, ecology, static stability, dynamic stability

  • Technical science. Building and architecture

  •  Wall gardening as an element of ecologization of dwelling houses

    Recently, the issues of improving the environmental situation in the urban environment have become more relevant than ever. "Green architecture" gets popularity not only in Russia but over the world as well. The necessity of this type of architecture causes the need to improve air quality and environmental factors of urban conditions. Most often, greening the roof of a building or greening the facades is used for ecologization, so-called the element of wall greening and also greening of vertical surfaces of buildings (phyto facade).

    Keywords: green architecture, vertical greening, green wall, waving plants, green screens, phyto facades

  • Improvement of engineering and environmental surveys in the survey of radon pollution

    The article is devoted to improving the processing of radon flux density measurement data using mathematical processing. The article considers the influence of construction works on the radon flux density (RDP) indicators. for the purpose of the study, real measurements were taken at a mining and processing plant in the volgograd region. The article presents the construction of histograms and frequency polygons for measurements performed at different stages, as well as graphs of the empirical distribution function of a random variable. They clearly showed the impact of construction, the hypothesis of the influence of clay soils on the radon output from the soil was confirmed, namely, it was proved that the permeability of the near-surface layer of soil is one of the key factors determining the spatial PPR within homogeneous areas, that is, the permeability of near-surface deposits is one of the leading factors determining the distribution of PPR. analysis of the obtained results allows us to conclude that there is a correlation between the calculated data obtained and the data obtained at the measurement input, i.e. relationship of two or more random variables.

    Keywords: radon, pollution, ionizing radiation, engineering surveys, random variable, histogram and frequency polygon, empirical distribution

  • Investigation of the accordion effect of corrugated steel beams

    Assessment of flexural strength is important in the design of steel beams. In this paper, analytical studies have been carried out to determine the flexural strength of conventional steel I-beams and steel corrugated beams. An experimental program was analyzed for four beams with a simple support and different web configurations (flat or corrugated) and different flange thicknesses (thin or thick). In the course of experimental work, the effect of a decrease in the bending capacity of a beam due to a corrugated web was determined. To simulate the tested samples and check the results of the experimental part of the work, a nonlinear finite element technique was used. After receiving the results, the following conclusions were made. First, the bending capacity of the corrugated steel beam is less than that of the conventional steel I-beam, in the range of 10 to 20%. Second, the flexure of the flat-web steel beam showed local buckling of the flange followed by local buckling of the web, in contrast to the steel girder with a corrugated web, which previously showed only local buckling of the flange. And third, the finite element model can simulate the behavior of steel beams, especially in the elastic stage, with an acceptable degree of accuracy.

    Keywords: steel beam design, flexural strength, corrugated web, flange thickness, bending capacity, finite element technique, web configuration

  • Assessment of factors affecting the ecology of cities with hot climates and difficult terrain

    Southern cities with hot and calm climate conditions, located on difficult terrain due to the lack of sufficient aeration, are in an extreme ecological situation. Urban construction on difficult terrain affects the established local microclimate by changing the structure of the environment and hydrogeological conditions. In addition, the development of urban space and the construction of modern multi-storey buildings significantly affect the aerodynamics of the environment and ecology. In the article, on the basis of the analysis of the climatic parameters of the cities of Sochi, Makhachkala and field observations, the conditions under which the local air circulation is formed, contributing to the improvement of the ecological situation, are revealed. Models of the formation of aeration of urban space for different types of landscaping have been constructed The analysis performed will make it possible to correctly assess the factors influencing the formation of aeration of thermal origin and their role in improving the ecology of cities with hot and calm climate conditions.

    Keywords: wind, buildings, structures, landscaping, space, climate, region, analysis, landscape, aeration, ecology

  • Prospects for the use of carbonate rocks of the Perm Region for the production of chemically deposited chalk with specified quality indicators

    On the territory of the Perm Region there are a large number of deposits of carbonate rocks. Their application in various industries is limited due to the high amount of impurities, so to expand the scope of application of local carbonate rocks, it is proposed to use chemical methods for obtaining deposited chalk, which were considered in the article. The most rational method seems to be the carbonation of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide. The implementation of this method is possible at commercial lime production plants, which will not only solve the important environmental problem of carbon dioxide emissions in such industries, but also will allow expanding the market for high-quality calcium carbonate, which is in demand by various industries.

    Keywords: calcium carbonate, chemically precipitated chalk, lime, calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, carbon dioxide, carbonation, commercial lime

  • Development of a mixing unit design for high-gradient mixing of coagulant solutions with water

    The parameters of the mixers widely used in the practice of water treatment are given. A fundamentally new design of the mixing unit is proposed, which provides a process of rapid and complete mixing of reagents in a thin layer of a rotating flow of a pre-created water-air mixture using the method of concentrated coagulation. At the same time dispersion of air bubbles is carried out. A detailed description of the design, operating principle and basic design parameters of the mixer used in the mixing unit.

    Keywords: natural water, coagulant, mixer, concentrated coagulation, aeration, velocity gradient, rotational motion

  • Improving the thermal protection of building enclosing structures

    The results of the analysis of quality parameters of building materials used for insulation of walls of residential buildings are presented. The problem of increased consumption of thermal energy for heating needs is identified, the solution of which is to increase the thermal characteristics of the enclosing walls of buildings by means of their insulation and protection by the system of a hinged ventilated facade.

    Keywords: Hinged ventilated facade, thermal characteristics, influencing factors, energy efficiency

  • On the ratio of the strength parameters of sandy soils when tested in a compression odometer with measurement of lateral stresses and a single-plane shear device

    Methods and results of determining indicators of deformation and strength properties of soils using various laboratory test technologies are considered. The research objective is to verify the methodological correctness of the results obtained from tests in a compression odometer chamber with the ability to measure lateral stresses. The relevance of this development lies in the possibility of replacing this device with testing to determine the strength characteristics of the soil in shear devices. The results of tests of fine sand lying at the base of the projected sports and recreation complex at one of the construction sites in Penza are presented. The influence of the used test methods on the obtained values ​​of the strength and deformability characteristics is shown. Correlation indicators are revealed and corresponding conclusions and proposals are given. There is a possibility that the method is valid when some correlation coefficients are used. Therefore, in the future, it is necessary to conduct tests on different types of soils with the possible compilation of tables of conversion factors.

    Keywords: sand, laboratory test methods; single-plane cut, odometric tests, strength characteristics, deformation characteristics